Appendix
Catalogue Descriptions

HOMER EDITIONS

SECTION I : PUBLICATION, BOOK-MAKING, BIOGRAPHY

(Nicholas Bellinson) Homer [‘Η τοῦ Ὁμήρου ποίησις ἅπασα. Ed. Demetrius Chalcondyles, Bernardus Nerlius, Nerius Nerlius, and Demetrius Damilas. Printed in Florence, perhaps by Bartolomeo de’ Libri, before 13 January 1489. Editio princeps includes a dedicatory letter (in Latin) from Bernardus Nerlius to Pietro de’ Medici], a letter from Demetrius Chalcondyles to the readers [first page missing], Pseudo-Herodotus’s “Life of Homer”, Pseudo-Plutarch’s “On the Life and Poetry of Homer”, Dio Chrysostom’s “On Homer”; [the Iliad, the Od-yssey α-β], the Odyssey β-ω, the Batrachomyomachia, the Homeric Hymn to Apollo, the Homeric Hymn to Hermes[, and the rest of the Hymns]. Folio. Signatures: [AI], AII–DI4, EI–V9, [F–Z, AA, BBI,] BBII–III5, CCI3, DD-FF, GGI–IV7, HH, II I–III6, KK–XX, YYI–IV7, [15f.]. 192 folia of a possible 440; 384 of 880 original pages, but re-bound with new front- and endleaf. Paper.

(George Elliott) Homer. John Ogilby, translator. His Odys-ses translated adorno with sculpture and illustrated with annotations by John Ogilby, Esq, Master of His Majestie’s Revells in the Kingdom of Ireland. Printed by Thomas Roycroft, for the author, 1665. Signa-tures: A-Yy6. Title page printed in red and black with one illustration for each of the 24 books of the Odyssey with an additional for the piece as a whole. Piece in overall good condition with small amount of dis-coloration on edges. Bound in contemporary English calf. Donated to the University of Chicago by M.C. Lang.

John Ogilby’s translated works were considered excellent choices for the wealthy because of their overall quality. His Odyssey translation was printed on high-quality paper and included detailed illustrations by Hollar and other renowned engravers. Ogilby used his marketing skills to persuade local wealthy families to finance these il-lustrations in exchange for their family crests inclusion in the images themselves. The work also includes a proclamation by the king forbid-ding anyone from using the illustrations for at least 15 years, an early version of copyright.

(Blaze Marpet) Hobbes (Thomas), trans. The Iliads and Odysses of Homer. Translated out of Greek into English, by Tho: Hobbes Of Malmsbury. With a large Preface concerning the Vertues of an Heroick Poem; written by the Translator. Printed for Will. Crook, at the green Dragon without Temple-Barre, 1677, SECOND EDITION, 12mo (A–Z, Aa–Kk, A–B6, C–O10).

In 1673, Hobbes published a translation of one section of the Odyssey as The Travels of Ulysses, As they were Related by Himself in Homer’s Ninth, Tenth, Eleventh & Twelfth Books of his Odysses, to Alcinous, king of Phaeacia. He subsequently published a translation of the complete Odys-ses in 1675, the complete Iliads in 1676, and a joint edition—published as the “Second Edition”—in 1677 (all in London). This second edition included a Preface by Hobbes and an essay on the life of Homer. The translations were in alternating rhyming pentameters. The relatively rapid succession of printings suggests that the book was popular and sold well. Perhaps the reason for this was that its convenient size (du-odecimo) made the volume appealing and accessible—especially com-pared to Chapman’s and Ogilby’s versions.

(Margo Weitzman) Homer. The Iliad of Homer, Translated by Alexander Pope. The | Iliad | of | Homer.|Translated by Mr. Pope. | Te Sequor, O Graciæ gentis Decus! Inque tuis nunc | Fixa Pedum pono pressis vestigia signis: | Non ita Certandi cupidus, quàm propter Amorem, | Quòd Té imitari aveo — | Lucret. | London: | Printed by W. Bowyer, for Bernard Lintott be- | tween the Temple-Gates, 1715.

Latin epigram from Lucretius’ On the Nature of Things. London: Printed by W. Bowyer for Bernard Lintott, 1715–1720, vol. 1 of 6. The inside cover includes a C.H. Wilkerson book plate; engraving by George Vertue; title page, and permissions page written by James Stanhope [A, 1–4]; Preface B-L, [5–42], omits choir J, pullout map of Homer’s Greece include in choir L; 2 pages of engravings [A, 1–4]; “An Essay on the Life, Writings and Leaning, of Homer” B-P [1]-55, [56], omits choir J; “The First Book of the Iliad” with argument on the verso, no choir or page number, text A-I, 1-36, omits choir J; “Obser-vations on the First Book,” no choir or page number, omits choir A, text runs [B, 1–3], C-L, 5–40; “The Second Book of the Iliad” included in choir L of the previous section, text runs A-N, [2–3], 4-50, omits choir J and mis-numbers pages 2–3 as 34–35; “Observations on the Second Book” text runs [Aa], Bb–Ff, 1–24, G–I, 25–35; “A Geo-graphical Table of the Towns, &c. in Homer’s Catalogue of Greece, with the Authorities for their situation, as places on this Map” includ-ed in choir I of the previous section, I-K, 36–40, omits choir J; “A table of Troy, and the Auxiliar Countries,” L, 41; “The Third Book of the Iliad” title included in choir L of the previous section, choirs reset and text runs from A-G, 1–27, [28]; “Observations on the Third Book of the Iliad” text runs from Aaa-Ddd, [1–2], 3–16, E-H, 17–30, [31–32]; “The Fourth Book of the Iliad” with argument on the verso in-cluded in choir H of the previous section, choirs then reset and text runs A–H, 1–30, [31–32]; “Observations on the Fourth Book” title included on page [31–32] of the previous section, choirs reset and text runs A–F, 1–22, [23–24].

Volume One contains the first four books of the Iliad, and in-cludes brief synopses and expanded commentary for each. This 1715 volume is one of six, the last of which was published in 1720. The choirs are cloth bound and the plain leather cover is imprinted with a filigree box on the front. The print throughout is black, and choir let-ters reset after each section. There are several engravings depicting Greek busts, statuary and coins, and a pullout map of Homer’s ancient Greece that is referenced by an indexical chapter. The engravings were used to replace illustrations, which was also a new and less costly prac-tice. George Vertue, an English engraver who was particularly interest-ed in antiquarian history and research, produced the large bust of Homer in the frontispiece.

Pope frequently consulted his predecessors’ work while trans-lating Homer, regardless of the fact that he often criticized their trans-lations for errors and negligence. Pope’s Iliad has been both lauded and chided for its challenging rhyming heroic couplets, but admiration of the volumes has continued to the present.

SECTION II : LITERARY PHILOLOGICAL TRANSLATION PRACTICES

(Beatrice Bradley) Homer. Homeri Poetae Clarissimi Ilias per Laurentium Vallensem Romanum Latina Facta. Cologne: Apud Heronem Alopecium, 1522, ornamental woodcut border depicting angels, the Virgin Mary, and Jesus on title page, large woodcut letters begin each book, index, and errata sheet at end, original tan calf bind-ing with decorative design, a bit worn at corners, front binding becom-ing loose from spine, with contemporary marginal notes in Latin, in-cluding a couple textual corrections, in red and brown ink, very good; sig. 8°: A–T8, V8, X–Z8, a–l8 (–l8), aa–bb8, cc.1

This prose edition of the Iliad is translated in part by the fa-mous Italian Renaissance humanist Lorenzo Valla. He translated the first sixteen books from the original Greek into Latin, and his pupil, Francesco Griffolini, translated the remainder. This copy is of particu-lar interest not only because of Valla’s literary reputation, but also for its influence on George Chapman’s later translation of the Iliad into English.

(Jo Nixon) Homer. The Iliads of HOMER Prince of Poets. Neuer before in any languag truly translated. With a Coment vppon some of his chiefe places; Donne according to the Greeke By Geo. Chapman. At London: Printed by Nathaniel Butter, [1611?], Sculp. By William Hole. Sig.: 1 leaf; A, in 6’s; A–Z, in 6’s; Aa–Ff, in 6’s; Gg, in 10’s. pp. [26], 1–45, 64, 47–77, 68–69, 80–219, 226, 221, 236, 235–287, 208, 289–332, 327, 334–341, [25], 8vo.

Homer. Homer’s Odysses. Translated according to ye Greeke By. Geo. Chapman. At London:Printed by Rich. Field, for Nathaniel Butter. Sig.: A–Q, in 6’s; R, in 8’s; S–Z, in 6’s; Aa–Hh, in 6’s; Ii, in 7’s; 2 leaves. pp. 1–55, 60, 57–76, 75, 78, 81, 82–153, 156, 155–193, [3], 195–274, 257, 258, 277–326, 325, 328–349, 352–376 [6], 8vo.

This volume consists of Homer’s Iliad and Odyssey bound to-gether. In addition to prefatory dedications at the beginning of both works and the end of the Iliad, Chapman also offers commentary on his translation interspersed throughout the marginalia and after most of the books of the Iliad.

(Angela Parkinson) Homer. [BRIDGES (Thomas)] A Bur-lesque Translation of Homer. Printed for S. Hooper, 1772, engraved frontispiece, missing signatures page, a little light spotting, pp. [ii], iv, 2, [4], a-a1, b-b4 through i-i4, k-k4 through u-u4, x-x4 through z-z4, Aa-Ii4, Kk–Uu4, Xx–Zz4, Aaa–Iii4, Kkk–Uuu4, Xxx–Zzz4, 4A–4A2, 547, [1]p., plate; folio-sized 4to, contemporary sprinkled calf, spine with five thick raised bands, gold lettering on red background on spine, ownership inscription of Douglas Grant (1947) made in pencil, very good condition.

This is the first single-volume, quarto edition of a satirical translation of the first twelve books of the Iliad by Thomas Bridges (fl. 1759-1775). Dedicated to the “laughing tribe,” Bridges’ translation was originally published in 1762 under the title Homer travestie and the pseudonym “Caustic Barebones” in two-volume sets. The Special Col-lections Research Center at the University of Chicago Library also houses the 1967, two-volume edition of this translation in 12mo. This much more luxurious 1772 production is a well-preserved copy with little damage save for wear on the bottom right-hand corners of pages from regular use; it provides an opportunity to enjoy this biting single-volume edition of Homer. The translator inserts many contemporary phrases into the translation, making the text a clear commentary on eighteenth-century English life despite the front matter’s claim to “ex-press Homer’s meaning full.”

(Elizabeth Tavella) Dolce (Lodovico), L’Achille et L’Enea. Dove egli tessendo l’historia della Iliade d’Homero à qvella dell’Eneide di Vergilio, ambedve l’ha divinamente ridotte in ottava rima. Con ar-gomenti, et allegorie per ogni canto: et due tavole… FIRST EDI-TION. Printed in Venice by Gabriel Giolito de’ Ferrari for Filippo d’Austria Re Catholico in 1570. Bound with Menechini (Andrea) Delle lodi della poesia D’Omero et di Virgilio in Venice by the same printer in 1572. pp. [18], 544, [44], 8vo, a-d4, e6, A-2L8, a-d4, e8. Richly illus-trated with woodcut initials and headpieces.

Lodovico Dolce (1508–68) was an extremely prolific writer and translator who had a decisive role in the dissemination of culture in the Cinquecento. His collaboration with the printer Giolito de’ Fer-rari was the most productive of the Venetian presses, especially in the decade 1550–60. In this book, composed of 55 canti, the author has woven the story of Homer’s Iliad to that of Virgil’s Aeneid, and reduced both into octaves. Each chapter is preceded by an argomento, a brief summary of the relevant book, and allegories, explanations designed to provide a broad context of the action to the reader.

SECTION III : IMAGES

(Hilary Barker) Homer. L’Ulisse | di M. Ludovico Dolce | da lui tratto | dall’Odissea d’Homero | et ridotto in ottavia rima | nel quale di raccontano tutti gli | errori, & le fatiche d’ Ulisse dalla partita sua di Troia, fino al ritorno | alla patria per lo spatio di venti anni. | Con argomenti et allegorie a ciascun | canto, cosi dell’Historie, come delle Favole, et con due Tavole: una | delle sententie, et ‘altra delle cose piu notabili. [Translated into ottava rima by Ludovico Dolce]. Venice: With privilege by Gabriel Giolito de’ Ferrari, 1573. xvi, 186+2, [*4, A–I4, K–L4, M3] 8vo.

Title page includes a typographic header and a large printer’s device (an eagle sitting on a flaming orb reaching to the sun’s rays in a cartouche decorated with grotesques); Black letter, with catchwords and woodcut initials for each chapter; Each canto begins with the “Ar-gomento” within a woodcut border and a single woodcut scene within a decorative border; Register is printed on the recto of last page, a printer’s mark on the verso. Slight discoloration in first 40 pages of the book; wormholes in bottom outside corner throughout–in margin, does not effect the text; in latter half of the book corners have been restored; page 103 bottom corner torn off; page number on page 28 upside-down. Pencil inscription on back flyleaf, illegible. Bound in brown leather, embossed; front cover is detached; includes a pink rib-bon bookmark.

(Javier Ibanez) George Chapman (1559?–1634). “THE | WHOLE WORKS | OF | HOMER; | PRINCE OF POETTS | In his Iliads, and | Odyses. | Translated according to the Greeke, | By | Geo : Chapman. | De Ili : et Odyss : | Omnia ab his; et in his sunt omnia: | Sive beati | Te decor eloqui, seu rerū pondera | tangunt. Angel : Pol :” Printed in London for Nathaniel Butter, [1616]. Title page within large woodcut representing Homer, Achilles, and Hector, as well as two unidentified figures, large woodcut portrait of Chapman on the verso, woodcut initials, typographic head – and tail – pieces, un-signed and engraved separate title page for the Odyssey, marbled cover and edges. 4to. Sig.: 6 leaves; A*, 6 leaves; A–I, in 6’s; K–T, in 6’s; V, 6 leaves; X–Z, in 6’s; Aa–Ff, in 6’s; G, 7 leaves; A–I, in 6’s; K–Q, in 6’s; R, 8 leaves; S–T, in 6’s; V, 6 leaves; X–Z, in 6’s; Aa–Hh, in 6’s; Ii, 7 leaves; pp. [xxvi], 1–45, 64, 47–77, 68–69, 80–219, 226, 221–233, 236, 235–287, 208, 289–332, 327, 334–341, [21], 1–55, 60, 57–76, 75, 78–79, 78, 81–153, 156, 155–193, [3], 195–274, 257–258, 277–285, 289, 287–326, 325, 328–349, 352–376, [2].

This 1616 volume is a collected edition of Chapman’s transla-tions of Homer, which he began publishing in 1598. Chapman’s trans-lation is the first complete English rendition of the Iliad and the Odys-sey, and the work was highly successful and widely influential. This copy is very well maintained and includes the separate title for the Od-yssey, which is absent from most copies.

(Goda Thangada) Hoi tes heroikes poieseos proteuontes poietae kai alloi tines. Homeros, Hesiodos, Orpheus, Kallimachos, Aratos, Nikandros, Theokritos, Moschos, Bion, Dionysios, Kolouthos, Tryphiodoros, Mousaios, Theognis, Phokylides, Pythagorou chrysa epe. Poetae graeci principes heroic carminis et alii nonnulli. Homerus, Hesiodus, Orpheus, Callim., Aratus, Nicand. Theocrit. Moschus, Bion, Dionysius, Coluthus, Tryphiodorus, Musaeus, Theognis, Phocylides, Pythagorae aurea carmina. Fragmenta aliorum. [Geneva]: Excudebat Henricus Stephanus, illustris viri Huldrichi Fuggeri typographus, Anno M.D. LXVI [1566], minor spotting and small holes, pp. 20, LXXII, 781, LVII, 489, folio, *6, 2*4, a-D8, E4, a-2b8, 2c6, 2A10, 2B–2Y8, 2Z6, 3Z4, a-g4, 2A-3R6, 3S-3T4,paper, note on flyleaf signed Leonard L. Mackall 1933, and addressed to R.R. Donnelly and Sons, leather worn on ridges of spine and edges of cover, good.

The title page of this edition does not disclose the place of publication. However, the editor, Henri Estienne, a Huguenot refugee, was reportedly based in Geneva for the majority of his career. This massive volume includes not only the works of Homer, but of several Greek poets and ancient materials related to Homer. There are multi-ple sets of pagination in both Roman and Arabic numerals. The first set of Roman numerals and the second two sets of Arabic numerals include ancient Greek texts. The edition also includes a preface by the editor and a set of annotations, both in Latin.

(Tali Winkler) Homer. Homer |his |Iliad translated |adorn’d |with |sculpture |and |illustrated with |annotations |by |John Ogilby. |London, |Printed |by |Thomas Roycroft and are to| be had at the Authors House in Kings-head Court |within Shoe-Lane, MDCLX [1660]. Folio: [χ1+4] a-d2 d*-f*2 e-f2 [g2] B–I2 [χ2] K–Q4 R–S4+1 T4 [χ1] U–Y4 Z4+1 2A–2C4 2D4+1 2E–2I4 2K4+1 2L-2P4 2Q4+1 2R–2T4 χ1 2U–2Z4 3A4+1 3B4 3C4+1 3D–3E4 3F–3G4+1 3H4 3I4+1 3K4 3L4+2 3M–3Q4 3R4+1 3S4 3T–3U4+1 3X–4A4 X2. Deviations from the standard 4-leaf quire are likely due to the addition of an illustrated plate. Pages also paginated: [46] 518 [4]. [Frontispiece and 20 leaves of plates, 27.5x42cm.]

Engraved portrait of John Ogilby opposite title page. Prefato-ry materials include: a dedication to King Charles II, an essay on “the Life of Homer,” an essay on “the Countrie & Time of Homer,” a dis-cussion of previous editions of Homer’s works, and “Epigrams upon Homer.” In the main text, the Iliad is in a central column, with annota-tions in the outer and lower margins. First page of each chapter usually has woodcut initial, as well as decorative panel along the top margin. Full-page panels interspersed throughout the text, engraved by Wen-ceslaus Hollar. Ogilby used subscription publishing extensively and subscribers could have their names, coats of arms, and titles included on one of the full-page panels. Book in good condition, some minor tears that have been taped together. Brown leather binding, spine let-tered in gilt: “Homer’s Iliads.” Ogilby subsequently published Homer’s The Odyssey in 1665.

SECTION IV : NATIONALISM AND NATIONAL IDENTITY

(Ji Gao) Salel (Hugues, translator), Jamyn (Amadis, transla-tor), Les XXIII livres de l’Illiade d’Homere, Prince des Poëtes Grecs. Paris : Pour Abel L’Angelier, au premier pilier de la grand’ salle du Pa-lais [1584]. Traduicts du Grec en vers François. Les XI premiers par M. Hugues Salel Abbé de Sainct Cheron, et les XIII derniers par Ama-dis Jamyn, Secretaire de la chambre du Roy : tous les XXIIII reveuz et corrigez par ledit Am. Jamyn avec les trois premiers Livres de l’Odyssee d’Homere Traduicts par ledit Jamyn. Plus une table bien ample sur l’Iliade d’Homere. There are scribbles on the title page of the Iliad. The font of the three books of the Odyssey is much smaller than that of the preceding books of the Iliad. [12] preliminary leaves; 490 leaves; 15 cm.

King François I commissioned poet Hugues Salel to translate the Iliad into French verse. The first ten books were published in 1545. Until his death in 1553, Salel completed two more books, which were then edited and published in 1554. Poet Amadis Jamyn completed Salel’s work and published a complete French edition of the Iliad in 1577, which contained Salel’s translation of the first eleven books.

In this edition, immediately after the title page, there is an “epistre” addressed to the King François I written by Salel, a long po-em in praise of Salel by Pierre de Ronsard, and a short one-page note in memory of Salel by Estienne Jodelle. These constitute the 12 pre-liminary leaves before the beginning of the pagination.

This expanded 1584 edition also contains a separate title page and text for Les Trois Premiers Livres de L’Odyssee d’Homere. Mis du Grec en François, avec Certaines Notes sur les Principales Matieres., which is Jamyn’s rendition of the first three books of the Odyssey. Their font is much smaller than that of the books of the Iliad.

(Camille Reynolds) Homer. Homeri poetae clarissimi Ilias per Laurentiu[m] Vallensem Romanum e Graeco in Latinum translata: & nuper accuratissime emendate, Venice: Ioannis Tacuini de Tridino, 1502, pp. 192, LXXXXVI leaves, signatures A8, B–P6, Q4, old vellum, spine decorated with golden leafing, a blank page followed by some light spotting on the title page, black initials and lettering, decorative imprinting at the start of each book, inscription on the colophon, “Impressum opus hoc emendatissimum Venetiis, accuratissima dexter-itate, & impensa Ioannis Tacuini de Tridino, anno a Natali Christiano MCCCCCII die xxv Februarii,” light marginalia in Latin; Bibliotheca Homerica Langiana, good condition.

This Latin edition of Homer’s Iliad, published in 1502 Venice, was translated by the famous humanist Lorenzo Valla. There is little prefatory material in this volume, except a brief dedication page penned by Valla in Latin and block illustrations at the beginning of each book. Alfonso the Magnanimous originally commissioned Valla to produce a Latin prose translation in the 1440s. Valla only translated the first 16 books, while his protégé, Francesco Griffolini, completed the Iliad and the Odyssey in the 1460s under the patronage of Pope Pius II.

(Noor Shawaf) Homer. The Iliad of Homer. Translated by Jamees Macpherson, Esq; in two volumes. London: Printed for T. Becket and P. A. De Hondt in the Strand; and sold also by T. Cadell in the Strand; J. Robson, in Bondstreet; Brotherton and Sewell, in Corn-hill; and E. and C. Dilly, in the Poultry. MDCCLXXIII. 4to. 2 vols.; vol. i: pp. xx, 375; Sig.: a, A–Bbb; vol. ii: pp. 443; Sig.: A–Kkk, Lll4.

Prose translation by Scottish poet and politician James Mac-pherson, printed in 1773. Two further editions published the same year. Without dedication or commentary; preface emphasizes Homer’s work as the model for all epic poetry.

(Brendan Small) Homer. L’Odissea D’Homero, Tradotta in Volgare Fiorentino da M. Girolamo Baccelli. Florence: Sermartelli, 1582, titled in gilt on spine, slight worm holing on cover, engraved title page, browning and spotting, decorative design on front inside and back covers, pp. [vi], 678, 8 vo, a-v, 2A–2V.

This notable work was the first complete version of the Odys-sey to be translated into the Florentine vernacular. The translator, Giro-lamo Baccelli, was born in Florence in 1514, and was a member of the Florentine Academy. His translation reflects his education, especially in certain descriptive passages where the translator diverges from the original Homeric Greek in favor of an Italian tradition that follows a late humanistic style.

The edition, published in the vernacular of Volgare Fiorentino, also reflects the changing landscape of the printing industry, as the dissemination of printed books in this period became more wide-spread and reached broader audiences. The title page is embellished with the printer’s device of Bartolomeo Semartelli (fl. 1563–1600). One finds an engraving with a turtle and the Latin motto FESTINA LENTE. The image of the turtle and the sail resembles the impresa of Grand Duke Cosimo I of the Medici family. The title page is followed by a flowery dedication to the Second Grand Duke of Tuscany, Don Francesco Medici.

(Felix Szabo) Aldo Manuzio (1449/50–1515). Ὁμήρου Ἰλιἀς, Ὀδύσσεα. βατραχομυομαχία. ὕμνοι. λβ = Homeri Ilias, Vlyssea, Batra-chomyomachia, Hymni XXXIII. Venice: Aldus, 1504. Octavo. 2 vols. (294 pp., 338 pp.) Volume 1: A–Z8, AA–LL8, MM6 (MM6 blank). Volume 2: AA² a³8 b-z8 A–G8 H¹0 ¹-78. Both volumes contain annota-tions: Volume 1 in Greek and Latin, and Volume 2 in Greek, French, and an as-yet unidentified script.

This volume represents the first Aldine edition of Homer, based on the editio princeps of Demetrios Chalcondyles (1488) and vari-ous manuscripts only available in Venice, with numerous corrections. It is dedicated to Jerome Aleander, a contemporary Venetian human-ist. The Aldine cursive type is based on contemporary cursive manu-script, rather than the classicizing hand found in Chalcondyles. Several previous owners’ signatures and bookplates are noted within the front cover of the first volume, and Aldine devices are present on the title pages of both.

 

 

Keywords: Alfonso V on Aragon, Aratus, Girolamo Baccelli, Bion, subscription, William Bowyer, Thomas Bridges, Demetrius Chalcondyles, George Chapman, King Charles II, University of Chicago, Dio Chrysostom, copyright, Demetrius Damilas, dedicatory epistles, Lodovico Dolce, London, engravings, Henri Estienne, Gabriele Giolito de’Ferrari, Florentine (dialect), French, Ulrich Fugger, epic genre, Greece, Greek, Francesco Griffolini, Herodotus, Hesiod, Thomas Hobbes, illustration, Italian, Florence, Venice, Ireland, Amadis Jamyn, Etienne Jodelle, Abel L’Angelier, M.C. Lang, Latin, Barnaby Bernard Lintot, James Macpherson, Aldus Manutius, Paulo Manuzio, Medici, Cosimo de’Medici, Francesco de’Medici, Andrea Menechini, Musaeus, Bernardo & Nerio Nerli, John Ogilby, Orpheus, annotation, commentary, dedicatory epistles, frontispiece, index, marginalia, prefatory material, patron, patronage, philology, Pius II, Alexander Pope, Pseudo-Herodutus, Pseudo-Plutarch, Pierre de Ronsard, Hugues Salel, Bartolomeo Sermartelli, Geneva-Switzerland, Theognis, typography, Lorenzo Valla, vernacular, George Vertue, Virgil, Aeneid, woodcuts

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